It lies along the sourthern shore of Manila Bay, bounded on the north by Manila Bay and Metro Manila, on the east by Laguna, on the west by the South China Sea and on the south by Batangas. It has a land area of 128,755 hectares and a population of 1,150,103 as of 1990. It is comprised of three cities and twenty 20 municipalities.
The portion of the province bordering Manila bay consist of lowlands or flat-lying areas. The central portions are characterized by rolling and undulating lands while the rest are upland or hilly and mountainous areas. It has two pronounced seasons: relatively dry from November to April and wet from May to October. It is predominantly an agriculture province and its major crops include rice, vegetables, fruits, rootcrops, coffee, coconut and sugarcane. It is endowed with rich offshore and coastal fishing grounds and fishing is a major source of livelihood in the coastal towns. Many industrial establishments are now operational and more industrial estates have been or are being developed in various parts.